Roma Locuta Est, Causa Finita Est

Rome Has Spoken, the Cause is Finished

Did St. Augustine actually say this? Let us find out!

A Response to James White by Scott Windsor

This is a response to a "popup" from James White that he posted in the #CathApol chat-channel on Undernet/IRC. James took the time to prepare the popup, but in "live/realtime chat" it was a bit difficult to respond to (all of it scrolling on to the screen at once - some of his points not being addressed, because they were missing in "realtime." Given the oportunity to respond offline at my own pace, I was able to look at the context of St. Augustine's Sermon 131, plus look up more details on Pope St. Zosimus.

So, below is the original discussion (on the left) with my responses (on the right), which is then followed by the actual text of Sermon 131 (on the left) with my commentary (on the right).

[12:37] <NA27> OK, here's the popup. There are five segments. :-) I have reformatted James' segments for this webpage.
[12:37] <NA27> Merdinger writes in _Augustine Through the Ages: An Encyclopedia_ (Eerdman's, 1999), pp. 728-729, "In a memorable sermon preached at Carthage in September 417, Augustine acknowledged the papacy's pivotal role in the controversy: "For two councils [Carthage and Milevis] have now sent reports to the Apostolic See; replies have come in turn. The dispute is finished. Would that the error might be finished sometime as well." (s. 131.10). Augustine's remarks in sermo 131 have often been quoted out of context, prompting some scholars to assert that the Africans placed the entire decision in Innocent's hands alone. Elsewhere, however, Augustine clearly stated his belief that councils and the papacy must both play a role in defining doctrine (see, e.g., c. Jul. 3.1.5)... I find it interesting that here he admits that St. Augustine believes the papacy has any role in defining doctrine! But by this version of the quote, we see that Rome has indeed replied (can that not be that Rome as "spoken?"). We also see that Rome plays a "pivotal role" in this as well.
[12:37] <NA27> Africa's amicable relationship with Rome took a turn for the worse with the death of Innocent in March 417. He was succeeded by Zosimus...he readmitted Pelagius and Caelestius to communion. Communion into what? The One, True Church? And James, I must ask you, do you REALLY think that Pope St. Zosimus KNEW that Pelagius and Caelestius were disingenuous in the "confession" that was sent to Rome? Do you REALLY think he KNEW they were still heretics and yet embraced them anyway? Come now, do you REALLY expect us to make this leap with you?
[12:38] <NA27> In Magnum Pondus and Postquam a Nobis the pope upbraided the Africans for their treatment of the two men. Disturbed by Zosimus' tactics, the Fathers sent envoys to Ravenna to seek Emperor Honorius' aid....In a third letter to Aurelius, Zosimus vacillated between making lofty pronouncements about papal prerogatives and seeking advice from the Africans. "(L)ofty" is a polemical term, but aside from that what we see here is that Pope Zosimus has not made anything final in this regard. We can admit that he wrongfully readmitted Pelagius and Caelestius back into communion with the Church (calling them both orthodox and Catholic) but this was based upon a deceptive "confession" from Pelagius which made Pelagius seem orthodox to His Holiness Pope Zosimus (from another source I have found that it was Caelestius who wrote the deceptive confession, [E. Giles, Papal Authority, pp. 205-206]). We see here that Pope Zosimus was open to seeking advice from the African bishops (even if he was "vacillating" [another polemical term] in this context). We also take note of the fact that the term "pope" is used here and seemingly not objected to!
[12:38] <NA27> On 30 April the emperor issued an edict banishing Pelagius and his followers from Rome....He avoided any reference to papal authority over the issue. Arguing from silence now James?
[12:38] <NA27> On 1 May the Africans convened a plenary council at Carthage to defeat Pelagianism on their own terms. Over two hundred bishops categorically anathematized the central tenets of the movement. No, it was not "on their own terms" it was on the terms of orthodoxy in the Catholic Faith.
[12:38] <NA27> In a letter to Zosimus at the close of the council, the Fathers pointedly remarked that they would uphold his predecessor's decrees, not his.... "The Fathers?" Did this assembly account for ALL the Fathers of the Church, or just the African Fathers? And yet, this "council" decreed it would uphold the decrees of "his predecessor" of what position? Interesting that there IS authority recognized here by the African bishops.
[12:38] <NA27> Zosimus capitulated, and in July he issued a long letter condemning Pelagianism...." So rather than accept that His Holiness has decreed the orthodox position, we detect a bit of sarcasm in "Zosimus capitulated." Let it be known, that Pope Zosimus DID uphold the orthodox position of the Church all along, what he "changed" was his statement on Pelagius and Caelestius after being shown that they were in error/heresy from the One, True Faith.
[12:38] <NA27> It must be remembered that Zosimus, upon taking the throne in Rome, acted rashly, sending letters to North Africa in which he clearly displayed his pompous attitude. He arrogantly browbeat the North African bishops for being rash in their decisions concerning Pelagius and Coelestus; he proclaimed, as the bishop of Rome, that these men were "catholic" and "orthodox" and commanded that the North African bishops present their case before him. Ah! So, if we look past the further usage of polemics (acted rashly, arrogant browbeating, pompous attitude, etc.) we see acknowledgement of a "throne in Rome" and the fact that Pope Zosimus requested that the African bishops "present their case" before him. If one wishes to call this a "command" then sobeit! As we see below, the African bishops submitted to the command!
[12:38] <NA27> Late in 417 or early in 418 the bishops of North Africa gathered in council to respond to the situation. They sent a letter to the bishop of Rome in which they pointedly said that they would continue to enforce the decision they had already rendered against Pelagius and Coelestus; they reminded Zosimus that his predecessor had agreed with them, and they said that they would refuse fellowship to the two until they confessed openly that "we are aided by the grace of God, through Christ, not only to know, but to do what is right, in each single act, so that without grace we are unable to have, think, speak, or do anything pertaining to piety." Here is the admission that the African bishops did indeed submit to the command to present their case by doing just that.
[12:39] <NA27> The refusal of the North African bishops, led by Augustine, to bow to Zosimus makes it very clear that his words in Sermon 131 are *grossly* misused by RC apologists. And the rest of the history bears this out. Well, we have not seen anything that indicates this is a "grossly misused" paraphrase from Sermon 131.10 of St. Augustine.
[12:39] <NA27> Zosimus was rattled by the North African rebuff. He wrote back, claiming that he had "maturely examined the matter" and had not reached his decision rashly. But the North Africans were firm: they called another council, with 200 bishops in attendance, in May and again condemned Pelagianism. Meanwhile, the Emperor in Ravenna concurred, and sent a letter demanding the expulsion of Pelagius and Coelestus. Despite his having declared both men "catholic," "orthodox," and that he had engaged in a "mature examination" of the case, Zosimus crumbled under the combined weight, did a complete about face, and joined in the condemnation of Pelagius and Coelestus. James likes to say that Pope St. Zosimus "crumbled" here, but he has taken an extremely polemical approach. There is little, if any, objectivity in his thesis. Did he even consider a Catholic source on this issue? The Catholic Encyclopedia online has a bit of a different take on this matter. I encourage the reader to take a look at that source as well: (clicking here will cause a new window to open, preserving your place in this one). Briefly, it says (as I answered below) that Pope St. Zosimus was DECEIVED by a false confession of Pelagius, and believed Pelagius' deception. Perhaps it took the "pressure" of two African councils and the Emperor to convince him otherwise. What is significant is that these two councils and the Emperor felt there was a NEED to get Pope St. Zosimus to change his stand - and the further point is that he DID change his stand and upon his final decree orthodoxy of the Catholic Faith as taught by the Pope remained true to the Catholic Faith.
[12:40] <NA27> Let this be a lesson for all who read such sources as "This Rock" or "Envoy" magazine: it is easy to isolate phrases, or even make phrases up (such as those who claim Augustine said, "Roma locuta est, causa finita est"), to create an impression that is false. Let the reader beware: go to the original sources and discover for yourself. Did St. Augustine use those very words in this Sermon 131? Perhaps not, though it would seem that much of this is based on interpretation. The wording that James admits to is: "For two councils have now sent reports to the Apostolic See; replies have come in turn. The dispute is finished." So, "replies have come in turn" = "Rome has spoken" (for it is Rome that is replying here); and "the dispute is finished" = "the cause is finished."
Now, I grant you here, St. Augustine goes on to say, "Would that the error might be finished sometime as well." That latter statement indicates that St. Augustine is not wholly satisfied with "Rome's answer." But it must be further noted that he appears to be willing to submit that "the dispute is finished."
[12:40] <NA27> Modern Roman Papal claims are a-historical and untrue.
[12:40] <NA27> fini
Then I, after allowing James' "popup" to complete, started answering in realtime.

[12:41] <BigSCOTT> Not ahistorical or untrue...
[12:41] <BigSCOTT> not sure what the point is that you were making in this popup
[12:41] <NA27> I'm sorry, Scott. But, thankfully, everyone else does.
[12:41] <BigSCOTT> Zosimus was "wrong" in declaring these men Catholic?
[12:41] <BigSCOTT> was taht the point?
[12:42] <NA27> You *really* don't get it, Scott?
No, I got it - I was attempting to clarify what James' point was. Upon my first and live reading of this "popup" I felt his intent was to just show that Pope St. Zosimus was wrong in declaring Pelagius and Caelestius as "orthodox and Catholic." For, if this was his point, then we agree! However, James' point was to end the use of "Roma locuta est, causa finita est" by myself and other Roman Catholics (another member of his channel had asked me about this because it was an autoquote from my system when someone "pinged" me on IRC).
[12:42] <NA27> You don't see how the facts demonstrate that Sermon 131 does NOT say what you have always said it says? Well, to be clear, I have not "always" said this, but I do admit to quoting it in the past and adding it to my auto-reply. My point is, does it truly NOT say what I (and others) have said it says?
[12:42] <NA27> You don't see how this bishop of Rome, Zosimus, made an error as well? How can you not see these things that are so obvious and clear? No, I have admitted that Pope Zosimus made an error, based on a deception, regarding Pelagius and Caelestius. That was obvious and clear, and likewise clear that he corrected that error, and that the African bishops and the Emperor felt it NECESSARY that this error be corrected!
[12:43] <BigSCOTT> I have not read the full context...
[12:43] <BigSCOTT> It is possible for a Pope to err...
[12:43] <BigSCOTT> I do not dispute that...
[12:43] <BigSCOTT> many have, and have been rebuke for such
[12:44] <NA27> OK, well, no time to argue the obvious today, Scott. Yes, the Popes have erred many times....and it is obvious that in this case it was on the very definition of the gospel itself. Oh well, we know how you get around that. But anyway, must go.
[12:44] <NA27> God's Grace Be Forever Praised!
[12:44] NA27
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Below I am including the full context of Sermon 131. It will be interesting for the reader to note how much of this "in context" sermon that James must have a lot of difficulty accepting, but we'll get to that later. James leaves now, and gives me a chance to read the Catholic Encyclopedia's account of this. James also, in a rather quick exit, states that this statement deals with the Gospel itself. No, it dealt with the Pope being deceived by the false confession of Pelagius - and the Pope believing that these men were indeed "orthodox and Catholic" and it would not be until after those two councils and the Emperor took their stand that the Pope would realize the deception and correct his position.
[13:06] <BigSCOTT> - This is the CE entry on Pope St. Zosimus
[13:24] NA27
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[13:25] <BigSCOTT> it seems that he was DECEIVED by Pelagius and made a ruling...
[13:26] <BigSCOTT> however, after consulting with the African bishops, he decreed that he had made no "final ruling" and that he would NOT do so without first consenting the African bishops.
[13:26] <BigSCOTT> <BigSCOTT> And later upheld and defended the orthodox position of the Catholic Church - which he never denied, but based on the deceitful "confession" of Pelagius, had pronounced Pelagius as a "Catholic." And this enraged the bishops of Africa... Augustine included.
[13:26] <BigSCOTT> Now, if there were NO Papal authority here, why would these allegedly "independent" bishops have been so up in arms about what the bishop in Rome said?
[13:26] <BigSCOTT> CLEARLY this whole argument implies that there WAS INDEED authority in Rome, and that is what concerned the African bishops so much, that the Bishop of Rome had stated Pelagius was a "Catholic"
[13:27] <NA27> lol
[13:27] <BigSCOTT> ?? You laugh?
[13:27] <NA27> Like I said, there is always a way around facts, if you want a way around facts.
[13:28] <BigSCOTT> those are the facts
And I reiterate now, I have presented the facts.
[13:28] <NA27> So the bishop of Rome can be deceived on matters of faith and morals? Fascinating.
[13:28] <NA27> Or, to quote someone from TV, "How conveeeeeeeeeeeenient."
[13:28] <BigSCOTT> He did not "rule" on this
Please note, in order for the Pope to make an infallible declaration on matters of Faith and Morals, he must be
  1. Teaching to the entire Church, not just one portion of it.
  2. It must be a statement that is made binding on all Catholics.
  3. He must state what the penalties are for defying this teaching.
NONE of these qualifications can be applied to Pope Zosimus' statement to the African bishops regarding Pelagius and Caelestius. PLUS he was not teaching against a matter of Faith and Morals, for based on the FALSE confession of Pelagius, he believe these two were indeed orthodox and Catholic.
[13:28] <NA27> And isn't it very strange, Scott, that it took two North African Councils AND the Emperor to get Zosimus to escape from his "deception"?
[13:28] <NA27> :-)
I fail to see the irony. You or I were not there. Somehow Pope Zosimus was convinced that those two were orthodox and Catholic, and attempted to stand his ground on the matter. The fact remains that he withdrew his support for Pelagius and Caelestius and remained true to the Catholic Faith.

[13:29] <BigSCOTT> - This is the CE entry on Pope St. Zosimus
[13:29] <NA27> Fact is, big guy, that 1) Sermon 131 is not quoted correctly by RC apologists; 2) that sermon 131 in no way promotes Papal authority (which is what started all of this).
[13:29] <BigSCOTT> Well, even as such, it still does...
We shall see, below, how much of Sermon 131 applies to this situation, and how it supports Catholic doctrine on several other issues as well.
[13:30] <NA27> He sent two letters to the bishops of North Africa REBUKING them and saying that Pelagius and Coelestus were "orthodox" and "catholic." What do you call that, Scott?
[13:30] <BigSCOTT> Augustine stated that Rome had spoken, the case was closed... even though it really wasn't at the time...
[13:30] <NA27> Uh huh. So what do you call that, Scott?
[13:30] <NA27> Please answer my question. What do you call that?
[13:30] <BigSCOTT> He sent those letters while he still believe the false confession of Pelagius
[13:31] <NA27> If the bishop of Rome writes to you and says that certain individuals are orthodox and catholic that YOU have disfellowshipped, what does THAT mean?

[13:31] <NA27> < sigh >
[13:31] <NA27> Goodnight, I don't know if I've ever seen greater blindness in my life.
[13:31] <NA27> 1,5(4,5)1,5(4,5)1,5(4,5) 0,5 AUGUSTINE NEVER SAID ROME HAD SPOKEN!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1 1,5(4,5)1,5(4,5)1,5(4,5)
James appears to be getting a bit frustrated now
[13:31] <BigSCOTT> He thought he [Pelagius] was orthodox...
[13:31] <NA27> My goodness man, wake up!!
[13:32] <BigSCOTT> later it was shown Pelagius wasn't
[13:32] <NA27> He said two NORTH AFRICAN councils had spoken and that Julius, Zosimus' predecessor, had agreed. The case was closed NOT because of Rome. Will you PLEASE at least admit this is the simple fact?
[13:32] <BigSCOTT> and the Pope did "wake up"
[13:32] <BigSCOTT> perhaps he was a stubborn man...
[13:32] <BigSCOTT> didn't want to back down, but the fact remains he did back down...
[13:33] <NA27> Zosimus claimed to have engaged in a "mature examination" of Pelagius, and he MAINTAINED Pelagius' orthodoxy. The North Africans told him he was in error, and the Emperor joined in. Only when faced with these facts (not "new" information on Pelagius) did he give in.
James speculates that it was not based on this "new information" but other sources (one of which I have cited on this webpage) say otherwise. Do we listen to someone who is following a 16th Century Protestor, or do we listen to those still in communion with the Church that St. Augustine was a part of and defened so earnestly?
[13:33] <BigSCOTT> I may agree to your conclusion on that quotation... I will look into the context of that more... Which I do below.
[13:33] <NA27> Yes, so, two things: 1) Sermon 131 does not say "Rome has spoken." This is a FACT. Do you admit this or not?
[13:34] <BigSCOTT> Not those words, I agree
Not those words, exactly, but that statement can be derived from the text of Sermon 131.
[13:34] <NA27> 2) Augustine and the North African bishops stood strong against the bishop of Rome's declaration that Pelagius and Coelestus were orthodox, refused his rebuke, and were proven right. Correct?
[13:34] <BigSCOTT> I agree with the second.
[13:35] <BigSCOTT> Question for you
[13:35] <NA27> Dodge and weave if you wish on the obvious error the bishop of Rome made on the very nature of the gospel, I expect that from those who can do nothing more, but PLEASE have the temerity to allow the facts to be the facts and recognize what really happened. Sermon 131 does NOT contain a reference to "papal primacy." Thank you.
[13:35] <BigSCOTT> Why were they concerned about the Bishop of Rome's decree?
[13:36] <BigSCOTT> Will you answer my question?
[13:36] <BigSCOTT> If he had no jurisdiction over him, then why would they be concerned over his reproof of them?
[13:36] <NA27> Because Rome was the largest and most influential see in the West, of course. The bishop of Rome was sticking his nose in a matter about which he was both arrogant and ignorant, and Augustine especially did not want to see Pelagius running about spreading his heresy.
"Rome was the largest and most influential," at least we're getting somewhere!
[13:37] <NA27> They saw he didn't in their rejection of Zosimus in two councils, Scott.
[13:37] <NA27> If they believed the bishop of Rome was the infallible leader of the entire Church, pray tell, why did they rebuke him in council and refuse to drop their condemnation of Pelagius and Coelestus?
[13:38] <BigSCOTT> Because they knew the truth about Pelagius and Caelestus and made Zosimus aware of the deception that had transpired.
[13:39] <NA27> Yes, they knew the truth about Pelagius; but Zosimus did NOT drop his position as a result. He reversed only when the Emperor told him to do so, and a second council met, showing that the North Africans would not give in.
No, that is a bit of misinformation. The Emperor did not "tell" him to reverse his decision, rather, the Emperor banished Pelagius and Caelestius (siding with the African bishops). I have already conceded that PERHAPS this is what it took for Pope Zosimus to change his position on Pelagius and Caelestius, but again the Pope held the orthodox position, he just believed in the deceptive "confession" of Pelagius. If you have evidence of the Emperor "telling" Zosimus something here, I'd like to read it - otherwise I'd like to see a retraction of that remark.
[13:39] <NA27> Again, if they thought he was the head of the Church, why did they not obey him?
[13:40] <BigSCOTT> I am not sure if I agree with your spin on "why" but the fact remains that he did change his stand...
Upon further reflection, and as mentioned above, the DID "obey" him and submitted to his authority by presenting their case to him!
[13:40] <NA27> Yes, he gave in to political pressure. That's obvious.
[13:41] <BigSCOTT> Regardless, if that spin makes you feel better, but the fact remains that the African bishops were concerned with the Pope condemning them... and they didn't back down (rightfully so)
[13:41] <BigSCOTT> And the Pope came around... he was not the first Pope to err, and would not be the last...
[13:42] <BigSCOTT> Peter even erred in denying the Christ...
[13:42] <BigSCOTT> But came back and was still given the place of authority... "Feed My sheep...."
[13:43] <BigSCOTT> gotta run... bbiab
[13:46] <NA27> in the issue. They rebuked him and stood strong.
[13:46] <NA27> Finally, I would say that any further use of "Roma locuta est" etc. would be most disingenuous. Thanks.
[13:46] NA27
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Thus ended our discussion, this sixth day of April, 2000.
The original electronic text of this is found at:
This version has the "King's English" removed.




Delivered at the Table of the Martyr St. Cyprian, the 9th of the Calends of October,--23 Sept., on the Lord's day.

I. We have heard the True Master, the Divine Redeemer, the human Saviour, commending to us our Ransom, His Blood. For He spoke to us of His Body and Blood; He called His Body Meat, His Blood Drink. The faithful recognise the Sacrament of the faithful. But the hearers what else do they but hear? When therefore commending such Meat and such Drink He said, "Except you shall eat My Flesh and drink My Blood, ye shall have no life in you; " (and this that He said concerning life, who else said it but the Life Itself? But that man shall have death, not life, who shall think that the Life is false), His disciples were offended, not all of them indeed, but very many, saying within themselves, "This is an hard saying, who can hear it? " But when the Lord knew this in Himself, and heard the murmurings of their thought, He answered them, thinking though uttering nothing, that they might understand that they were heard, and might cease to entertain such thoughts. What then did He answer? "Does this offend you?" "What then if you shall see the Son of Man ascend up where He was before?" What does this mean? "Does this offend you ?" "Do you imagine that I am about to make divisions of this My Body which you see; and to cut up My Members, and give them to you? ' What then if you shall see the Son of Man ascend up where He was before?'" Assuredly, He who could ascend Whole could not be consumed. So then He both gave us of His Body and Blood a healthful refreshment, and briefly solved so great a question as to His Own Entireness. Let them then who eat, eat on, and them that drink, drink; let them hunger and thirst; eat Life, drink Life. That eating, is to be refreshed; but you are in such wise refreshed, as that that whereby you are refreshed, does not fail. That drinking, what is it but to live? Eat Life, drink Life; you shall have life, and the Life is Entire. But then this shall be, that is, the Body and the Blood of Christ shall be each man's Life; if what is taken in the Sacrament visibly is in the truth itself eaten spiritually, drunk spiritually. For we have heard the Lord Himself saying, "It is the Spirit That quickeneth, but the flesh profiteth nothing. The words that I have spoken unto you, are Spirit and Life. But there are some of you," He said, "that believe not." Such were they who said, "This is a hard saying, who can hear it?" It is hard, but only to the hard; that is, it is incredible, but only to the incredulous.

Wow! St. Augustine is talking about what would later (by St. Thomas Aquinas) be defined as transubstantiation! "For He spoke to us of His Body and Blood; He called His Body Meat, His Blood Drink. The faithful recognise the Sacrament of the faithful. This is a hard saying, who can hear it?" It is hard, but only to the hard; that is, it is incredible, but only to the incredulous."

Sorry James, you gain no points in this argument from paragraph 1, and in fact lose ground on a side issue (to this discussion) on the matter of the Real Presence in the Eucharist.

2. But in order to teach us that this very believing is matter of gift, not of desert, He says, "As I have said unto you, no man comes unto Me, except it were given him of My Father." Now as to where the Lord said this, if we call to mind the foregoing words of the Gospel, we shall find that He had said, "No man comes unto Me, except the Father which has sent Me draw him." He did not lead, but draw. This violence is done to the heart, not the body. Why then do you marvel? Believe, and you come; love, and you are drawn. Do not suppose here any rough and uneasy violence; it is gentle, it is sweet; it is the very sweetness that draws you. Is not a sheep drawn, when fresh grass is shown to it in its hunger? Yet I imagine that it is not bodily driven on, but fast bound by desire. In such wise you come too to Christ; do not conceive of long journeyings; where you believe, there you come. For unto Him, who is everywhere we come by love, not by sailing. But forasmuch as even in this kind of voyage, waves and tempests of divers temptations abound; believe on the Crucified; that your faith may be able to ascend the Wood. You shall not sink, but shall be borne upon the Wood. Thus, even thus, amid the waves of this world did he sail, who said, "But God forbid that I should glory, save in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ."

I think James and I can both agree on paragraph 2, so no further comment.

3. But wonderful it is, that when Christ Crucified is preached, two hear, one despises, the other ascends. Let him that despises, impute it to himself; let not him that ascends, arrogate it to himself. For he has heard from the True Master; "No man comes unto Me, except it were given unto him of My Father." let him joy, that it has been given; let him render thanks to Him who gives it, with a humble, not an arrogant heart lest what he hath attained through humility, he lose through pride. For even they who are already walking in this way of righteousness, if they attribute it to themselves, and to their own strength, perish out of it. And therefore Holy Scripture teaching us humility said by the Apostle, "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling." And unless hereupon they should attribute ought to themselves, because he said, "Work," he subjoined immediately, "For it is God who works in you both to will and to do of His good pleasure." "It is God who works in you;" therefore "with fear and trembling," make a valley, receive the rain. Low grounds are filled, high grounds are dried up. Grace is rain. Why do you marvel then, if "God resist the proud, and gives grace unto the lowly "? Therefore, "with fear and trembling;" that is, with humility. "Be not high- minded, but fear." Fear that you may be filled; be not high-minded, or else you will be dried up.

I think James and I can both agree on paragraph 3, so no further comment.

4. But you will say, "I am walking in this way already; once there was need for me to learn, there was need for me to know by the teaching of the law what I had to do: now I have the free choice of the will; who shall withdraw me from this way?" If you read carefully, you will find that a certain man began to uplift himself, on a certain abundance of his, which he had nevertheless received; but that the Lord in mercy, to teach him humility, took away what He had given; and he was on a sudden reduced to poverty, and confessing the mercy of God in his recollection, he said, "In my abundance I said, I shall never be moved." "In my abundance I said." But I said it, I who am a man said it; "All men are liars, I said." Therefore, "in my abundance I said;" so great was the abundance, that I dared to say. "I shall never be moved." What next? "O Lord, in Your favour You gave strength to my beauty." But "You have turned away Your Face from me, and I was troubled." "Thou hast shown me," said he, "that that wherein I did abound, was of You. You have shown me Whence I should seek, to Whom attribute what I had received, to Whom I ought to render thanks, to Whom I should run in my thirst, Whereby be filled, and with Whom keep that whereby I should be filled. ' For my strength will I keep to Thee;' whereby I am by Your bounty filled, through Your safe keeping I will not lose. ' My strength will I keep to You.' That You might show me this, ' Yhou turnedst away Your Face from me, and I was troubled.' 'Troubled,' because dried up; dried up, because exalted. Say then you dry and parched one, that you may be filled again; ' My soul is as earth without water unto Thee.' Say, ' My soul is as earth without water unto You.' For You have said, not the Lord, ' I shall never be moved.' You have said it, presuming on thine own strength; but it was not of thyself, and you did think as if it were."

Again, I think James and I can both agree on paragraph 4, so no further comment.

5. What then doth the Lord say? "Serve the Lord in fear, and rejoice unto Him with trembling." So the Apostle said too, "Work out your own salvation with fear and trembling. For it is God who works in you." Therefore rejoice with trembling: "For at any time the Lord be angry." I see that you anticipate me by your crying out. For you know what I am about to say,' you anticipate it by crying out. And whence have you this, but that He taught you to whom you have by believing come? This then He says; hear what you know already; I am not teaching, but in preaching am calling to your remembrance; no, I am neither teaching, seeing that you know already, nor calling to remembrance, seeing that you remember, but let us say all together what together with us you retain. "Embrace discipline, and rejoice," but, "with trembling," that, humbly you may ever hold fast that which ye have received. "Unless at any time the Lord be angry;" with the proud of course, attributing to themselves what they have, not rendering thanks to Him, from whom they have. "Unless at any time the Lord be angry, and you perish from the righteous way." Did he say, Unless at any time the Lord be angry, and you come not into the righteous way "? Did he say, "Unless the Lord be angry, and He bring you not to the righteous way "? or "admit you not into the righteous way? You are walking in it already, be not proud, lest you even perish from it. ' And you perish,' he says,' from the righteous way." " When His wrath shall be kindled in a short time" against you. At no distant time. As soon as you are proud, you lose at once which you had received. As though man terrified by all this were to say, "What shall I do then ?" It follows, "Blessed are all they that trust in Him:" not in themselves, but in Him. "By grace are we saved, not of ourselves, but it is the gift of God."

Here we see St. Augustine denying the "P" in TULIP (Perseverance of Saints). James' definition of the "P" is:

Since salvation is entirely the work of the Lord, and man has absolutely nothing to do with 'getting saved' in the first place, it is obvious that 'keeping saved' is also the work of God, apart from any good or bad on the part of His elect. The saints will 'persevere' for the simple reason that God promises this, assuring us that He will finish the work He has begun in us!"
But, St. Augustine says: "As soon as you are proud, you lose at once which you had received." So, what the Lord has given you (grace) can be lost, and "pride" is one way this gift can be lost.

6. Peradventure you are saying, "What does he mean, that he is so often saying this? A second and a third time he says it; and scarcely ever speaks, but when he says it." Would that I may not say it in vain! For men there are unthankful to grace, attributing much to poor and disabled nature. True it is, when man was created he received great power of free- will; but he lost it by sin. He fell into death, became infirm, was left in the way by the robbers half dead; the Samaritan, which is by interpretation keeper, passing by lifted him up on his own beast; he is still being brought to the inn. Why is he lifted up? He is still in process of curing. "But," he will say, "it is enough for me that in baptism I received remission of all sins." Because iniquity was blotted out, was therefore infirmity brought to an end? "I received," says he, "remission of all sins." It is quite true. All sins were blotted out in the Sacrament of Baptism, all entirely, of words, deeds, thoughts, all were blotted out. But this is the "oil and wine" which was poured in by the way. You remember, beloved Brethren, that man who was wounded by the robbers, and half dead by the way, how he was strengthened, by receiving oil and wine for his wounds. His error indeed was already pardoned, and yet his weakness is in process of healing in the inn. The inn, if you recognise it, is the Church. In the time present, an inn, because in life we are passing by: it will be a home, whence we shall never remove, when we shall have got in perfect health unto the kingdom of heaven. Meanwhile receive we gladly our treatment in the inn, and weak as we still are, glory we not of sound health: unless through our pride we gain nothing else, but never for all our treatment to be cured.

And in this paragraph, St. Augustine states the fact that the Sacrament of Baptism does indeed wash away sin. Baptism is not merely an outward sign, but an outward sign that gains grace! (This is another "sideissue" that James would disagree with, or at least has disagreed with on previous occasions).

7. "Bless the Lord, O my soul." Say, yes say to your soul, "You are still in this life, still bear about a frail flesh, still "does the corruptible body press down the soul;" still after the entireness of remission have you received the remedy of prayer; for still, while your weaknesses are being healed, do you say, "Forgive us our debts." Say then to you soul, you lowly valley, not an exalted hill; say to your soul, "Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget not all His benefits." What benefits? Tell them, enumerate them, render thanks. What benefits? "Who forgives all your iniquities." This took place in baptism. What takes place now? "Who heals all your weaknesses." This takes place now; I acknowledge. But as long as I am here, "the corruptible body presses down the soul." Say then also that which comes next, "Who redeems your life from corruption." After redemption from corruption, what remains? "When this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory. Where, O death, is your contention?" There rightly, "O death, where is thy sting?" You seek its place, and find it not. What is "the sting of death"? What is, "O death, where is your sting?" Where is sin? Thou seekest, and it is nowhere. For "the sting of death is sin." They are the Apostle's words, not mine. Then shall it be said, "O death, where is your sting?" Sin shall nowhere be, neither to surprise you, nor to assault you, nor to inflame thy conscience. Then it shall not be said, "Forgive us our debts." But what shall be said? "O Lord our God, give us peace: for You have rendered all things unto us."

More evidence that St. Augustine taught the remission of sins through baptism.

8. Finally, after the redemption from all corruption, what remains but the crown of righteousness? This at least remains, but even in it, or under it, let not the head be swollen that it may receive the crown. Hear, mark well the Psalm, how that crown will not have a swollen head. After he had said, "Who redeems your life from corruption;" he said, "Who crowns you." Here thou wert ready at once to say, "' Be crowned ,' is an acknowledgment of my merits, my own excellence has done it; it is the payment of a debt, not a gift." Give ear rather to the Psalm. For it is you again that says this; and "all men are liars." Hear what God saith; "Who crowns you with mercy and pity." Of His mercy He crownes you, of His pity He crowns you. For you had no worthiness that He should call you, and being called should justify you, being justified glorify you. "The remnant is saved by the election of grace. But if by grace, then is it no more of works; otherwise grace is no more grace. For to him that works, the reward shall not be reckoned according to grace, but according to debt." The Apostle says, "Not according to grace, but according to debt." But "you He crowns with pity and mercy;" and if your own merits have gone before, God says to you, "Examine well your merits, and you shalt see that they are My gifts."

Again, this paragraph is downplaying Perseverence of the Saints. It states that "after the redemption from all corruption (baptism), what remains but the crown of righteousness?" but then St. Augustine says that we are not to be proud, because the crown of righteousness will not have a swollen head.

9. This then is the righteousness of God. As it is called, "The Lord's salvation," not whereby the Lord is saved, but which He giveth to them whom He saveth; so too the grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord is called the righteousness of God, not as that whereby the Lord is righteous, but whereby He justifies those whom of ungodly He maketh righteous. But some, as the Jews in former times, both wish to be called Christians, and still ignorant of God's righteousness, desire to establish their own, even in our own times, in the times of open grace, the times of the full revelation of grace which before was hidden; in the times of grace now manifested in the floor, which once lay hid in the fleece. I see that a few have understood me, that more have not understood, whom I will by no means defraud by keeping silence. Gideon, one of the righteous men of old, asked for a sign from the Lord, and said, "I pray, Lord, that this fleece which I put in the floor be bedewed, and that the floor be dry." And it was so; the fleece was bedewed, the whole floor was dry. In the morning he wrung out the fleece in a basin; forasmuch as to the humble is grace given; and in a basin, you know what the Lord did to His disciples. Again, he asked for another sign; "O Lord, I would," saith he, "that the fleece be dry, the floor bedewed." And it was so. Call to mind the time of the Old Testament, grace was hidden in a cloud, as the rain in the fleece. Mark now the time of the New Testament, consider well the nation of the Jews, you will find it as a dry fleece; whereas the whole world, like that floor, is full of grace, not hidden, but manifested. Wherefore we are forced exceedingly to bewail our brethren, who strive not against hidden, but against open and manifested grace. There is allowance for the Jews. What shall we say of Christians? Wherefore are ye enemies to the grace of Christ? Why rely ye on yourselves? Why unthankful? For why did Christ come? Was not nature here before? Was not nature here, which you only deceive by your excessive praise? Was not the Law here? But the Apostle says, "If righteousness come by the Law, then Christ is dead in vain. "What the Apostle says of the Law, that say we of nature to these men. "If righteousness come by nature, then Christ is dead in vain."

As other apologists have pointed out before me, the objection to "works" is based on "works of the Law" not works done in the state of grace. St. Augustine does not belittle the attainment of grace by works done in the state of grace. Grace does indeed precede "good" works in Catholic teaching, and this teaching of St. Augustine supports the Catholic position. This is another side issue to the main reason this webpage was produced, but I am more than willing to engage James in the "works" debate.

10. What then was said of the Jews, the same altogether do we see in these men now. "They have a zeal of God: I hear them record that they have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge."What is, "not according to knowledge"? "For being ignorant of God's righteousness, and wishing to establish their own, they have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God."My Brethren, share with me in my sorrow. When you find such as these, do not hide them; be there no such misdirected mercy in you; by all means, when ye find such, hide them not. Convince the gainsayers, and those who resist, bring to us. For already have two councils on this question been sent to the Apostolic see; and rescripts also have come from thence. The question has been brought to an issue; would that their error may sometime be brought to an issue too! Therefore do we advise that they may take heed, we teach that they may be instructed, we pray that they may be changed. Let us turn to the Lord, etc.

And finally, in the last paragraph of this sermon, we find the statement that has often been translated, "Roma locuta est, causa finita est." Marked in red to the left you can see the statement that St. Augustine actually made. He does seem to be saying that this issue has been brought to Rome, Rome has responded and the issue is decided upon. The next line seems to relate some frustration in this sermon, "would that their error may sometime brought to an issue too!" On the one hand St. Augustine has admitted to and yielded to the authority of Rome, since the "causa finita est." On the other hand, St. Augustine takes a stand that he wishes the error would be "finita" (or "brought to an issue") and we can assume that this "error" is that of Pelagius and Caelestius so that the Pope would reverse his stand that they are truly not "orthodox and Catholic" (which Pope Zosimus later does make such a pronouncement. Clearly St. Augustine respects the authority and decision of the Pope and hopes the Pope will take up the issue of Pelagius' true heterodoxical/heretical position.

It is in no way clear, as James would have us believe, that St. Augustine's position is not saying

"Roma locuta est, causa finita est."


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